The mission of the first edition of this book was to introduce the anykernel and rump kernels and motivate their existence. Additionally, we explored the characteristics of the technology through various experiments. The paramount, often criminally overlooked experiment was the one hiding in plain sight: is it possible to construct the system in a sustainable, real-world compatible fashion. That paramount experiment was shown to be a success, and that result has not changed since the original publication, only strengthened. The core technology is still almost identical to the one described in the original book.

This new edition has been written to account for the practical experiences from new use cases, many of which were proposed in the first edition, but which have since become reality.

To start off, we will look at operating systems in general: what one is, how they developed throughout history, where they are now, what the problem is, and why the time …